Chapter 2. The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China

Here is the Study Material for History in Chapter 2. The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China

01. What were the two main religions in Indo-China? By whom was Christianity introduced in the country?
Buddhism and Conficianism were the 2 major religions of Indo-China. Christianity in Vietnam was introduced by the French (missionaries).

02. What is Hoa Hao movement? Name its founder.
Hoa Hao (1939) was a anti-colonial religious mvement popular in the fretile Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. Its founder was Huynh Phu So

03. Mention any 2 factors which prevented the growth of Vietnam in the early 20th century?
(a) High Population level
        (b) Low agricultural productivity
        (c) Extensive indebtness of peasents. (Any 2)

04. Give names of 2 types of chemical weapons used by the Americans against the Vietnamese.
Chemical weapons used by the Americans against the Vietnamese were:
        (a) Napalm Bomb
        (b) Agent Orange.

05. Who were reffered to as "Colons"?
The French people who permanently lived in colonies like Indo-China were known as "Colons".

06. When and with what aim was Tonkin Free School set up?
Tonkin Free School was set up in 1907 to provide western style of education to Viernamese people in order to westernise them.

07. When and why was the Scholars Revolt Movement organised by the Vietnamese?
The Scholars Revolt Movement was organised in 1868 as a protest against French Control and the spread of Christianity.

08. What is meant by the Ordinance 10?
Ordinance 10 was a French law which permitted Christianity to be practiced but outlawed Buddhism.

09. What was the name of the book written by Phan Boi Chau?
The History of the Loss of Vietnam.

10. When was the monarchy overthrown in China?
In 1911 by the Chinese Revolution of 1911.

11. Who was Sun Yat-sen?
He was a great Chinese nationalist, instrumental in establishing the republic in China in 1911.

12. Who founded the Communist Party in Vietnam?
Ho Chi Minh.

13. Which country occupied Vietnam in 1940?

14. What was Vietcong and Vietminh?
Communist army of the Vietnamese under Ho Chi Minh was known as "Vietcong ". The league for the indepenence of Vietnam that fought against the Japanese occupation of Vietnam was known as 'Vietminh'.

15. In which year was the Democractic Republic of Vietnam founded? Who was its 1st President?
The Democractic Republic of Vietnam founded in 1945. Ho Chi Minh was the first president of the Republic.

16. Which was the most serious challenge which the new republic had to face?
The most serious challenge which the new republic had to face was the French trying to regain control over Vietnam by using the emperor Bao Dai.

17.What was the most significant result of the peace negotiations held at Geneva after the defeat of the French of the french forces in 1954?
The most significant result was Vietnam came to be divided into two parts - the South Vietnam and the North Vietnam.

18. Who led the Coup in South Vietnam?
Ngo Dinh Diem led to the Coup in South Vietnam.

19. What is meant by  NLF? What role did it play in Vietnamese struggle?
NLF i.e. National Liberation Front. It opposed the authoritarian regime of Ngo Dinh Diem and played a significant role in the unification of the country (i.e. North and South Vietnam).

20. Which film reflected the moral confusion that had been caused in the US due to US Vietnam War?
Film by John Ford Coppala's 'Apocalyse Now'.

21. Why education became a dilemma or the French colonisers?
22. What do you mean by the Ho Chi Minh Trail?
23. Indo-China comprises of which modern countries?
24. When did Vietnam gain independence? When was Vietnam unified? When was the republic of Vietnam formed?
25. Give 2 factors which shaped modern Vietnamese nation.
26. Which country had an overpowering impact/influence on Vietnam? Give reasons in support.
27. Vietnam was linked to which areas?
28. When did the french troops land in Vietnam? When was French Indo-China formed?
29. Exploring and Mapping of rivers was part of colonial enterprise. Why? Give reasons.
30. Why did the French think colonies necessary?


01. How nationalism in Vietnam emerged through the efforts of different sections of the society to fight against the French? Explain.
02. How did the battle against Franch Colonial education become a part of the battle against colonialism and for independence of Vietnam? Explain.
03. Explain any 4 major challenges faced by the Democractic Republic of Vietnam.
04. Evaluate the role of Vietnamese women during 1960's war period and after the war in peace time.
05. Explain the contributions made by the French in the development of agriculture in Vietnam?
06. Explain the 2 different visions in opposing foriegn domination in Vietnam.
07. Give a brief account of Paul Bernard's views on relationship between colonies and colonisers with reference to vietnam.
08. Give the causes and consequences of the French defeat at Dien Bien Phu (1854). (At least 4)
09. Briefly describe the 'Go East Movement'.
10. Give the reasons for French defeat at Dien Bien Phu. (At least 4)
11. What were the two broad issues on medium of instruction in the field of education? Give the arguments.


01. What were the problems faced by the French in their attemts of civilising the Vietnamese through education?
02. What is meant by the Ho Chi Minh Trial. Discuss.
03. Give a brief account on the life and achievements of Ho Chi Minh.
04. How were the roles of womenn specified in the anti-imperialist movement in Vietnam?
05. What ideas did Phan Boi Chau and Phan Chu Trinh share in common? What did they differ on?
06. What does the 1903 plague and the measures to control it tell us about the french colonial attitude towards question of health and hygiene?
07. Influence of China on the culture and life of the Vietnam was tremendous. Justify the statement with examples.
08. Use of "Agent Orange" by the American in Vietnam had disastrous results. Justify the statement.
09. "The prolongation of the Vietnamese War created strong reactions even within US". Justify the statement.


01. Which of the following is not a part of Indo-China?

(a) Combodia
(b) China
(c) Laos
(d) Vietnam

02. Which European country colonised Vietnam?
(a) England
(b) Germany
(c) France
(d) Spain

03. The Scholars revolts was against

(a) spread of Christianity by the French
(b) the French intervention in education
(c) the rule of Bao Dai
(d) Ho Chi Minh

04. Who was the founder of the Hoa Hao Movement?
(a) Liang Oichao
(b) Phan Boi Chau
(c) Huyunh Phu So
(d) Ngyuyen Dinh Chieu

05. In which famous battle were the French defeated?

(a) Nghe An
(b) Dien Bien Phu
(c) Ha Tinh
(d) Phan Boi

06. Which society did Pham Boi Chau form?

(a) Revolutionary Society
(b) Hoa Hao
(c) Ha Tinh
(d) Phan Boi

07. In which of the following was indentured Vietnamese labour widely used?
(a) Railway construction
(b) Industry
(c) Rice cultivation
(d) Rubber plantations

08. Vietnamese culture was powerfully influenced by which of the following?
(a) Chinese
(b) Janpanese
(c) British
(d) Russian

09. What was the Language used by Vietnamese elites?

(a) Chinese
(b) French
(c) Vietnamese
(d) English

10. Tonkin Free School (1907) provided which of the following style of education?

(a) Vietnamese Style
(b) French Style
(c) Chinese Style
(d) Western Style

01. (b) China
02. (c) France
03. (a) spread of Christianity by the French
04. (c) Huyunh Phu So
05. (b) Dien Bien Phu
06. (a) Revolutionary Society
07. (d) Phan Boi
08. (a) Railway construction
09. (a) Chinese
10. (d) Western Style