Chapter 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Here is the Study Material for History in Chapter 1. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe


Q-1 When was the customs union known as 'Zollverin' formed and with what purpose?
The Zollverein was formed in 1834 at the initiative of Prussia and Joined by almost all German states. It abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from thirty to two.

Q-2 What is meant by Liberalism?
The Word 'liberalism', derived from the Latin word 'libes' stands for the end of aristocratic and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament.

Q-3 What were the immediate results of the Revolution of 1830 in France?
When and Under whom was constitutional monarchy set up in France?
As a result of the Revolution of 1830, the Bourbon Kings who had been restored to power by the Congress of Vienna were overthrown by the revolutionaries and constitutional monarchy established with Louis Phillipe as its head.

Q-4 Artist of the French Revolution Personified liberty by symbols. Give two such symbols.
Symbols -: (1) Torch of Enlightenment (2) Charter of Rights of Man

Q-5 Name one artist whose name is associated with visual representation of nationalism?
Frederic Sorrieu

Q-6 Give two measures adopted by the French Revolutionaries to forge a sense of Collective identity?
(1) Through ideas of 'la patrie' (the fatherland) and 'le citoyen' (the citizen).
(2) Replacing the Standard royal flag by the new French tricolour flag.
(3) Composition of new hymns and  commemoration of martyrs.
(4) Formulation uniform laws for all citizens within its territory. (Any two)

Q-7 Name the architects of the Italian nation.
Names: (1) Count Camillo de Cavour, (2) Guiseppe Garibaldi (3) Guiseppe Mazzini

Q-8 What were the allegory of the German Nation and republic of France known as?
The main architects were:
(1) The empire established by Turkey is known as the Ottoman Empire.
(2) The Prussian King William 1.

Q-10 What is meant by the Ottoman Empire?
The empire established by Turkey is known as the Ottoman Empire.

Q-11 Lists names of any three Balkan states which earlier constituted a part of the Ottoman Empire.
States were: (1) Bulgaria, (2) Greece and (3) Romania

Q-12 Nationalism aligned with which factor led Europe to disaster in 1914.

Q-13 What factors gave rise to spirit of nationalism?
Various factors such as common race, language, religion, aims and aspirations, culture and Shared past gave rise to nationalism.

Q-14 Who was the main architects of the established of nation-state in England?
The English Parliament which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 was the main architect, through which a nation-states with England at its centre came into being.

Q-15 When was the Act of Union passed and with what results?
The Act of Union between England and Scotland took place in 1701. It led to the formation of United Kingdom of Great Britain.

Q-16 Name the Leader and the states which gave leadership i n Italian unification?
Victor Emmanuel 2 the King of Piedmont and Sardinia gave  leadership in Italian unification.

Q-17 Mention 2 ways in which Europe benefited from French rule?
In the areas occupied by Napoleon the feudal system was abolished, uniform laws and standardised weights and measures were introduced.

Q-18 Mention 2 territorial changes that occurred due to the Congress of Vienna?
France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon and the Kingdom of Netherlands which include Belgium was created.

Q-19 How did France benefited from the Revolution?
France benefited form the Revolution:
(1) it become a republic,
(2) right to vote was given to all adults males, and
(3) right to work was guaranteed to all.

Q-20 Name the Famous hall when Otto von Bismarck gathered to proclaim the German Empire headed by Kaiser William?
The Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles

Q-21 When were United Kingdom and Ireland united and with what results?
Q-22 By the 1790s, the french armies marched into which countries?
Q-23 By which name is the Civil Code of 1804 of France known?
Q-24 The Habsburg empire ruled over which area?
Q-25 Who were called the serfs?
Q-26 Where and when did the industrial revolution begin in Europe?
Q-27 Where and by whom and why was the Congress of Vienna held?
Q-28 Where and when was the Frankfurt Parliament held?
Q-29 The advantages of the administrative changes brought about by Napoleon were outweighed by which things? Mention 2 such factors.

II. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (4 marks; 60-80 Words)

01. 'The initial enthusiasm towards the French armies soon turned to hostility'. Give reasons.
02. In Europe of min-eighteenth century there were no nation-states'. Comment.
03. How did revolutionary ideas spread to other countries?
04. Growth of Industrialisation changed the social and political equation in Europe. Discuss.
05. (a) What was the Zolleverin?
      (b) Under whose initiative was it formulated?
      (c) What were its wider implications?


01. Metternich once remarked "When France sneezes the rest of Europe catches a cold." Discuss this statement in reference to the July revolution of 1830.
02. Distinguish between Revolutions of 1830 and 1848.
03. Compare the positions on the question of women's rights voiced by the three writers cited. What do they reveal about liberal ideology?
04. Describe the 4 stages of unification of Germany.
05. Briefly trace the process of Italian unification.
06. Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity.
07. Give four important factors which led to the growth of nationalism in nineteenth century in Europe.
08. How has French artist Fredric Sorvien visualised in his first print, of the aeries of 4 prints, his dream of a world made up of "democratic and secular republic". Explain.
09. Describe the cause of the Silesian Weavers uprising. Comment on the viewpoint of the journalist.
10. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of nation in Europe? Justify the statement with 4 examples.
11. The Treaty if Vienna gave a setback to the process of nationalism. Justify the statement with examples.
12. Justify how the history of development of nationalism in England different from the rest of Europe.
13. The French Revolution signified the first clear expression of nationalism in France. Justify the statement.
14. Why do you think Metternich made the remark. When France sneezes the rest of Europe catches a cold. Justify the statement in the light of July Revolution (1830).


01. Which of the following artists depicted a world made up of 'democratic and social Republics'?

(a) Karl Kaspar Fritz
(b) Eugene Delacroix
(c) Frederic Sorrieu
(d) Lorenz Clasen

02. What was the end result of 19th century nationalism?
(a) Emergence of nation states
(b) Modern state
(c) Multidynastic empires
(d) Absolutist monarchies

03. Which of the following was not among the measures adopted by French revolutionaries to create a collective identity?

(a) Ideas of 'la patrie' and 'le citoyen'
(b) Tricolour flag
(c) Regional dialects were composed
(d) Hymns composed

04. The Habsburg's were rulers of
(a) Austria-Hungary
(b) Dutch Republic
(c) Germany
(d) Switzerland

05. Which of the following was not a feature of liberal ideology in the political sphere?
(a) Freedom of the individual
(b) Equality of all before the law
(c) Government by consent
(d) Violability of private property

06. Liberalism in the economic sphere did not entail
(a) freedom of markets
(b) abolition of state imposed restrictions on good
(c) abolition of restrictions on movement of capital
(d) feudal privileges

07. Customs union formed in 1834
(a) Collectivization
(b) Zolleverein
(c) European Economic Union
(d)  Napoleonic Code

01. (c) Frederic Sorrieu
02. (a) Emergence of nation states
03. (c) Regional dialects were composed
04. (a) Austria-Hungary
05. (d) Violability of private property
06. (d) feudal privileges
07. (b) Zolleverein