Chapter 7 - Lifelines of the National Economy

Here is the Study Material for Geography in Chapter 7 - Lifelines of the National Economy.


01. What are known as lifelines of the national economy?
Means of transport and communication

02. What are the two major means of land transport?
1. Roadways     2. Railways

03. Name main means of communication.
Telephone, Radio, Television, Films and Internet.

04. What are the main categories of Indian Roads?
Main categories of Indian Roads are:
(1) National Highways
(2) State Highways
(3) District and Village Roads
(4) Express Highways
(5) International Highways

05. Who builds and maintains the National Highways?
The central government

06. What are express or free highways?
Express of freeways are the national highways with 4 to 6 lanes meant to meet the requirement of fast traffic movement across the country.

07. Why has government involved private companies to invest, develop and maintain these roads?
Their constructions and maintainance need huge investment.

08. In what way is television more useful than radio? Give one point.
Television more useful than radio because it gives live vision of the happenings along with audio sounds and commentary while radio provides only audio service.

09. What are the 3 names of Express of Freeways?
Their names are:
(1) Golden Quadrilateral
(2) North-South and East-West Corridors
(3) Connectivity of 10 major ports with Golden Quadrilateral and Corrodors

10. Which is the major public sector enterprise of the Central Government?
. Indian Railways

11. What does 'BOT' stands for?
BOT stands for Build, Operate and Transfer. It means that after realising cost and profit for certain period, the roads will be transferred to the govt. as their rightful owners.

12. What is a railway gauge? Name 3 types of gauges found in India.
Railways guage refers to the width between two rails . There are three types of guage found in India. They are:
(1) Broad Guage (1.675 metres)
(2) Metre Guage (1.000 metres)
(3) Narrow Guage (0.762 metre and 0610 metre).

13. What is the total length of roads in India? How much of this length is surfaced?
The total length of roads in India is 25 lakh kilometre. 57% of this length is surfaced.

14. What is the policy of Indian Railways regarding electrification?
The rapid electrification of all the railway tracks.

15. Name the two super-fast trains of India.
Rajdhani Express, Shatabdi Express.

16. What is the inland navigational potential in India?
5200 kilometres.

17. Name the two navigational rivers of India?
Ganga and Brahmaputra.

18. Up to which city would Ganga be used in navigation in due course?
Up to Patna and in due course up to Allahabad.

19. Name the two main ports of the western coast of India.
Mumbai and Nhava Sheva.

20. Name the four ports which have developed recently
(a) New Mangalore
        (b) Haldia
        (c) Nhava Sheva
        (d) Ennore

21. How many major ports are there in India?
22. What are the three types of Railway Engines? Explain the utility of each.
23. Name the ports where maximum transportation takes place.
24. Which are the two ports of India where maximum exports take place at?
25. Give one example each of the following from the major ports of India:
      (a) Tidal Port
      (b) Natural Harbour
      (c) Artificial Harbour
26. In which state of India is Tuticorin situated?
27. Name the air services operating in India at present
28. Name the two main ports of India, known for the exports of the iron ore.
29. Name the two countries which import iron ore from India?
30. Write names of international airports of India?
31. Name the two main aeroplanes of India.
32. How many private scheduled and non-scheduled companies operate air transport (domestic) in India?
33. What are the main features of National Highways?
34. What is the length of National Highways as on March 31,2002?
35. Enumerate the main problems of road transportaion of India.
36. Why is Chennai called an artificial Sea Port?
37. What are the air postal services?
38. Give utility of Quick Mail Service (QMS).
39. Name the state in which Tuticorin is situated.
40. What does the trade provide us with?
41. State the importance of border roads.
42. What does the total road length indicate?


01. What are the life lines of a country?
02. What is Container Service? Write four characteristics of container service.
03. Why are railways the main artery of inland transport in India?
04. Mention the efforts made in the ancient times to biuld roads in India.
05. Mention the factors which influence the distribution of railways in the country.
06. What are the advantages of uniguage system?
07. Enlist six reforms which have taken place in Indian Railways?
08. Which canals of India are navigable?
09. Several efforts have been made to maintain a minimum level of water in river Hugli to ensure its navigability to reach Kolkata. Name such two efforts.
10. What are the uses of electrification of railway tracks?
11. Why is air travel important in north-eastern parts of India?
12. Write a concise note on the companies which operate air services in India.
13. What are the two types of airports in India?
14. Write a consise note on the major sea ports of India.
15. Explain any three measures adopted to reduce the burden on Indian Railways.


01. "Indian road transportation is confronted with problems." Describe any six problems.
02. Compare the Roads and the Railways as means of transport of India.
03. Why are the Indian Railways considered the most important gevernment govt. undertaking?
04. Explain the importance of Waterways as a means of  transport. Why are the inland waterways not so developed in India?
05. Give an account of the means of communication in India.
06. Distinguish between:
(a) Metaled and Unsurfaced Roads.
(b) National Highways and the State Highways.
07. Give reasons:
(a) There is a step fall in the sugarcane freight carried by railways.
(b) But for the spactacular achievements of the border road organisation, the defence of the country could have been in joepardy.
(c) Some items like gems and cashewnuts appear both on the import and export list.
08. Discuss the Pipeline Transport of India
09. Describe international trade of India.


01. Which is not the national highways?

(a) Grand  Trunk Road
(b) Agra-Mumbai Road
(c) Mathura Road
(d) Greater Noida Express Highways

02. National Highway connecting Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata is termed as :
(a) locomotives
(b) guage
(c) golden quadrilateral
(d) dock

03. Gauge is the term stating
(a) the place where there is provision of loading and unloading of ships
(b) the place on the sea coast
(c) the high pedestal built along the coastline
(d) the width before the two rails of the railway line

04. Gateway is the name given to

(a) harbour
(b) port
(c) dock
(d) tidal port

05. Which of the following locations are joined by the east-west corridor?
(a) Mumbai and Nagpur
(b) Munbai and Kolkata
(c) Silcher and Porbandar
(d) Nagpur and Siligudi

06. The name of the National Highway No. 2 is:

(a) Grand Trunk Road
(b) Agra-Mumbai Road
(c) Mathura Road
(d) Delhi- Mumbai Road

07. The rail gauge with a track width of 1.676m is
(a) broad guage
(b) metre guage
(c) narrow guage
(d) none of these

08. What does BOT stands for?
(a) Bureau of Transport
(b) Bureau of Trans-communication
(c) Build, Operate and Tranfer
(d) Bureaucracy Official agains Terrorists

09. Which of the following is the navigation river of India?
(a) Yamuna
(b) Krishna
(c) Brahmaputra
(d) Son

10. Which of the following ports is not developed recently?

(a) New Mangalore
(b) Mumbai
(c) Haldia
(d) Nhava Sheva

11. Kochi in Kerala is the example of which port of the following
(a) Tidal Port
(b) Natural Harbour
(c) Artificial Harbour
(d) Recently developed

12. Tuticorin is located in the state of

(a) Kerala
(b) Tamil Nadu
(c) Karnataka
(d) Orissa

13. Which is not the name of international airport?
(a) Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Airport
(b) Indira Gandhi International Airport
(c) Palam Airport
(d) Meenam Bakkam

14. What does QMS stand for?
(a) Quickly Medical Service
(b) Quick Mail Service
(c) Quickly Mother Dairy Service
(d) None of these

15. Which of  the following is not the factor, which influence the distribution of railway in the country?

(a) Physiographic factors
(b) Economic factors
(c) Administrative factors
(d) Political factors

16. Which of the following is advantage of unigauge system?
(a) Larger capacity
(b) Higher speed
(c) No loss in trans-shipment
(d) All of these

17. Air travel is  transport in north-eastern parts of India due to
(a) the prosperity of people of this region
(b) the less expensive mode of transport
(c)  heavy rains are liable to damage roads and railways
(d) all of the above

18. Which is not the development in the field of communication?
(a) Cellular phone
(b) Laptop
(c) Internet-e-commerce
(d) Radio

01. (d) Greater Noida Express Highways
02. (c) golden quadrilateral
03. (d) the width before the two rails of the railway line
04. (b) port
05. (c) Silcher and Porbandar
06. (c) Mathura Road
07. (a) broad guage
08. (c) Build, Operate and Tranfer
09. (c) Brahmaputra
10. (b) Mumbai
11. (b) Natural Harbour
12. (b) Tamil Nadu
13. (c) Palam Airport
14. (b) Quick Mail Service
15. (d) Political factors
16. (d) All of these
17. (b) the less expensive mode of transport
18. (d) Radio