Chapter 5 : Minerals and Energy Resources

Here is the Study Material for Geography in Chapter 5 : Minerals and Energy Resources


01. Name the articles made of metals which we use in our kitchen.
Utensils and kitchenware.

02. From where do these articles come?
From manufacturing units.

03. What is the crust of earth made of?
The crust is made of rocks which are the aggregates of minerals.

04. How do we get metals?
We get metals by processing minerals ores.

05. Why are minerals essential part of our life?
All of the following are made of minerals:
(a) From needle to buildings or a big ship.
(b) Roads, railways, aircraft and ocean crafts.
(c) All the energy sources
(d) Even our foods
(e) Minerals are also used in religious and cultural celebrations

06. What minerals do your toothpaste contain?
Silica, Limestone, Aluminium oxide, Phosphate.

07. From which mineral is fluoride obtained?
From fluorite mineral

08. What makes your toothpaste white?
Titanium oxide

09. What is the source of titanium oxide?
Rutile, Ilmenite, Anatase

10. Why does tooth powder provide lustre to our teeth?
Because of presence of mica in the tooth powder.

11. What are tooth brush and toothpaste tube made of?

12. Where do these minerals come from?
From the earth's crust.

13. How many minerals make the lighting bulb?
Aluminium, Glass, Tungsten, Petroleum, Limestone, Chalk

14.What is a mineral?
A mineral is an element which have definite chemical composition with a definite structure and shape.

15. What is an ore?
An ore is an accumulation of any mineral found mixed with other elements.

16. Name the rock which is made of one mineral

17. How many minerals have been identified so far in the world?
Nearly 2000.

18. What are two categories of minerals?
(a) Metallic Minerals : Those minerals which contain metals.
             Example : Iron ore, Bauxite, Manganese, Copper, Gold, Silver.
        (b) Non-Metallic Minerals : Those minerals which do not contain metals
            Example : Mica, Salt, Potash, Sulphur, Limestone.

19. What are the two types of minerals on the basis of iron content?
(a) Ferrous Minerals : Contain Iron
             Example : Iron ore, Manganese
        (b) Non-ferrous Minerals : Do not contain Iron
             Example : Copper, Gold, Silver, Lead.

20. In what form are the minerals generally found?
In the form of ores

21. Where are the minerals found?
(a) In igneous and metamorphic rocks - lead, copper, zinc.
        (b) In sedimentary rocks - gypsum, potash, salt and sodium.
        (c) Due to disintegration of rocks - bauxite.
        (d) Foothills and valleys places deposits - gold, silver, tin, platinum.
        (e) From ocean water - salt, magnesium, bromine.

22. What is rat-hole mining?
Rat-hole mining is that type of mining which is done in Jowai and Cherapunjee by family members in the form of a long narrow tunnel.

23. Where are different minerals found?
In broader terms
        (a) Peninsular rocks contain various metallic minerals, coal and other non-metallic minerals.
        (b) Western and North Eastern fringes of peninsula (in Gujarat and in Assam Valley); mineral oil is found.
        (c) Rajasthan have non-metallic minerals.

24. What are the features of copper and aluminium?
Malleability, Expandability, Good conductor of heat and energy.

25. In which type of rocks is limestone found?
Limestone is found in sedimentary rocks.


01. What for is Bombay High famous? What is its contribution in the economy of the country?
02. "Most of our coal deposits are found in Chhotanagpur plateau" (N.E. parts of the peninsula). Give examples in support of your answer.
03. What is HVJ Pipeline ? What does it carry? Give its major features.
04. Name any two minerals in which India is rich and also name two minerals in which India is poor. Why is Indian iron ore in great demand in international market? Give one reason for it.
05. We use different things in our daily life made from metal. Can you list a number of items used in your house made metals? Where do these metals come from?
06. Hoe do all living things need minerals?
07. What is mineral?
08. What are the objectives of the study of minerals by Geographers and Geologists?
09. How does a deposit or a reserve become a mine?
10. What is the importance of ferrous minerals?
11. What is meant by Kudre? What does it resemble? What does Bailadila look like?
12. Classify minerals.
13. Explain Rat-hole mining.
14. What are the non-ferrous minerals?
15. What is the need for energy resources?
16. Explain how some non-conventional sources of power were used in earlier period in three different ways.
17. What is hydel power more important that thermal power?
18. What is the most important - coal, petroleum or water power?
19. In India the deposits of iron and coal are in close proximity to one another. Name the states having concentration of iron, coal, manganese and petroleum.
20. Describe the importance of minerals to man.


01. Why is the conservation of minerals essential? Explain any three methods pf conservation of minerals.
02. What are minerals? Outline three main characteristics of the mineral resources. Why are major minerals concentrated in the Chhotanagpur plateau region?
03. Where is Manganese mainly found in India?
04. What is the importance of coal?
05. What are the measures adopted by the govt. to augment coal production in India?
06. Why is 'solar energy' called 'the energy of future'? Give three reasons.
07. (i) State one advantage each of manganese and aluminium.
      (ii) Suggest and explain two measures to develop Neyveli Lignite Fields.
08. Distinguish b/w thermal power and water power. Explain two points.
09. Where does Haban come from from to Guwahati? What does Haban see in Guwahati?
10. How are the metals an indispensable part of our life?


01. Which of the following is not the category of mineral?
(a) Metallic mineral
(b) Precious mineral
(c) Non-metallic mineral
(d) Abrasive mineral

02. Coal and petroleum are the examples of
(a) Metallic mineral
(b) Precious mineral
(c) Non-metallic mineral
(d) Energy mineral

03. Examples of non-metallic minerals are
(a) manganese, nickel, cobalt
(b) copper, lead, tin
(c) gold, silver, platinum
(d) coal, petroleum, natural gas

04. In which type of formation does gypsum occur?
(a) Bed or layers
(b) Veins and lodes
(c) Results of evaporation indeserts
(d) Alluvial or placer deposits

05. Which part of India is almost devoid of economic minerals?
(a) Peninsular rock system in Rajasthan
(b) The vast alluvial plains of North India
(c) Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern flanks of peninsula
(d) None of these

06. Magnetite is a good quality ore of

(a) copper
(b) iron
(c) bauxite
(d) sodium salt

07. Which state has the largest no. of iron ore mines?
(a) Orissa
(b) Chhattisgarh
(c) Maharashtra
(d) Karnataka

08. Which mine is known as 100 percent export unit?

(a) Chitradurga
(b) Tamkur
(c) Kudermukh
(d) Bellary

09. Main uses of manganese ore
(a) steel
(b) salt
(c) ferro-manganese alloy
(d) bleaching powder

10. Which state is not the producer of mica?
(a) Bihar
(b) Jharkhand
(c) Rajasthan
(d) Uttar Pradesh

01. (b) Precious mineral
02. (d) Energy mineral
03. (a) manganese, nickel, cobalt
04. (a) Bed or layers
05. (b) The vast alluvial plains of North India
06. (b) iron
07. (d) Karnataka
08. (c) Kudermukh
09. (c) ferro-manganese alloy
10. (d) Uttar Pradesh